2015年2月28日 星期六

NHK AI Panel Discussion: Davos 2015 - A Brave New World



  • Stuart Russell -- The long-term future of AI

    www.cs.berkeley.edu/~russell/research/future/

    Stuart Russell, The Future of AI: What if We Succeed?, panel at IJCAI 13, Beijing, ... Panel discussion live on NHK TV (Japan), World Economic Forum, Davos, ... Interview on Hub Culture TV, World Economic Forum, Davos, January 23, 2015.
  • Davos 2015 - A Brave New World - YouTube

    www.youtube.com/watch?v=wGLJXO08IYo
    Jan 22, 2015 - Uploaded by World Economic Forum
    World Economic Forum ... Stuart Russell, Professor, University of California, Berkeley, USA; Global ... NHK ...



  • Published on Jan 22, 2015
    http://www.weforum.org/

    How will advances in artificial intelligence, smart sensors and social technology change our lives?

    • Rodney Brooks, Founder, Chairman and Chief Technical Officer, Rethink Robotics, USA; Technology Pioneer
    • Anthony Goldbloom, Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Kaggle, USA; Technology Pioneer
    • Hiroaki Nakanishi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hitachi, Japan
    • Kenneth Roth, Executive Director, Human Rights Watch, USA
    • Stuart Russell, Professor, University of California, Berkeley, USA; Global Agenda Council on Artificial Intelligence & Robotics

    Moderated by
    • Hiroko Kuniya, Anchor and Presenter, Today's Close-Up, NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation), Japan; Global Agenda Council on Japan

    As part of the 2015 World Economic Forum in Davos, NHK hosted a special debate. An international panel discuss "Brave New World: The future brought about by Artificial Intelligence."
    Davos 2015
    Brave New World: An AI-generated Future
    February 28, Sat. 13:10 / 19:10 (JST)
    March 1, Sun. 1:10 / 7:10
    http://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkwor…/english/…/special/201502.html…
  • The FCC's Net Neutrality Vote: Here's What You Need To Know

    Net neutrality isn't just important for small businesses. It's also fundamental for freedom of expression:
    The FCC voted today to adopt net neutrality rules to "protect the open internet." If you're still not quite sure what that means, we got your back: http://n.pr/1AwMW8v

    The Federal Communications Commission is set to vote on whether to...
    WWW.NPR.ORG


    By a 3-2 vote, the FCC votes to adopt net neutrality rules to "protect the open Internet." Our original post continues:
    Here's a guide to what all of this means.
    — What does net neutrality mean?
    Here's the Cliffs Notes version from NPR's Elise Hu:
    "Net neutrality is the concept that your Internet provider should be a neutral gateway to everything on the Internet, not a gatekeeper deciding to load some sites slower than others or impose fees for faster service."
    In other words, it's a concept in which Internet service providers (ISPs) don't discriminate when it comes to Internet traffic.
    Without net neutrality rules, ISPs could theoretically take money from companies like Netflix or Amazon to speed up traffic to their sites.
    "More than 30 percent of Internet traffic at peak times comes from Netflix, according to studies. So Verizon might say, 'Netflix, you need to pay us more.' Or maybe Verizon strikes a deal with Amazon and says your prime video service can get speedier delivery to the home and we're going to slow down Netflix."
    — What is the FCC voting on?
    The Federal Communications Commission is voting on whether to reclassify broadband access as a "telecommunications service under Title II."
    In layman's terms, the FCC is looking to reclassify broadband as a utility, which would give the commission more regulatory power over Internet providers.
    — What prompted this FCC vote?
    Back in 2010, the FCC actually passed rules to keep the Internet neutral. But those rules were challenged by Verizon and in January of 2014, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit ruled that the FCC did not have the regulatory power over broadband to issue those rules.
    The court, however, said that the FCC could reclassify broadband and that would give it broad regulatory powers.
    FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler decided to go that direction in February.
    Earlier this week, Republicans in Congress dropped opposition to the proposed rules, saying they were not going to pass a bill without any Democratic support.
    — What would the proposed rules do?
    The proposed rules are pretty lengthy, but from an FCC fact sheet, here are the three things that the rules would ban that matter most to consumers:
    "No Blocking: broadband providers may not block access to legal content, applications, services, or non-harmful devices.
    "No Throttling: broadband providers may not impair or degrade lawful Internet traffic on the basis of content, applications, services, or non-harmful devices.
    "No Paid Prioritization: broadband providers may not favor some lawful Internet traffic over other lawful traffic in exchange for consideration — in other words, no 'fast lanes.' This rule also bans ISPs from prioritizing content and services of their affiliates."
    — What does John Oliver have to do with all this?
    The comedian John Oliver brought this issue to the forefront when he dedicated 14 minutes on his program to explain why net neutrality is so important.
    He called on his viewers to write to the FCC to encourage them to adopt new rules. His call — and the enormous response — broke the commission's website.
    A bunch of big Internet sites — Netflix, Etsy and Foursquare among them — joined the chorus in September when they took part in "Internet Slowdown Day," presenting their users with symbolic loading icons "to remind everyone what an Internet without net neutrality would look like."
    — When is the FCC voting?
    The FCC is voting during an open meeting at 10:30 a.m. ET. The commission isproviding a live stream of its meeting here.
    2009.9.22
    Net Neutrality Speech Draws Strong Reactions
    FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski announced proposed net-neutrality rules to a standing-room-only crowd of telecom geeks, giddy consumer advocates and glum industry lobbyists Monday.




    standing-room
    n.
    Space in which to stand, as in a public place where all seats are filled.
    standingroom stand'ing-room' (stăn'dĭng-rūm', -rʊm'adj.


    FCC Proposes 'Net Neutrality' Rules
    The FCC's chairman said wireless carriers shouldn't be allowed to block certain types of Internet traffic flowing over their networks. (Remarks)

    2015年2月26日 星期四

    smart phone use by age group

    Today two billion phones are in use worldwide, and this number is expected to double by the end of the decade. To get an idea how much time people will then spend on their smartphones it helps to look at today’s young people. Today’s ‪#‎Dailychart‬ shows that, according to Ofcom, those aged between 16 to 24 years use their device nearly four hours a day; those aged between 55 to 64 only half as much http://econ.st/1JQGLT4

    2015年2月23日 星期一

    Heretical Thoughts About Science and Society ;Just Asking: The Science Guy Bill Nye gets hot

    Bill Nye 強調否認全球氣候變遷論者的科學程度,其實他們的科學是硬科學。
    參考:
    名科學家Freeman Dyson在波士頓大學管理學院的講座: Heretical Thoughts About Science and Society
    Uploaded on Mar 30, 2010第一個非科學預言即:強國各領風騷150年,2070年中國因美國外務過寬廣多,窮於應付而登場.....作為曾是強國英國的子民,曾是一流國民,甘居二等國家的公民.....美國人適應不再是世界主宰之人文主義觀點......
    http://hcbooks.blogspot.tw/…/sun-genome-and-internet-21-fre…
    Freeman Dyson: The Scientist as Rebel《反叛的科學家》The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet資 21世紀三事
    ⋯⋯

    http://hcbooks.blogspot.tw/…/sun-genome-and-internet-21-fre…
    Freeman Dyson: The Scientist as Rebel《反叛的科學家》The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet資 21世紀三事
    Freeman Dyson: Heretical Thoughts About Science and Society
    Uploaded on Mar 30, 2010
    Freeman Dyson with dry wit and self-effacing good humor explains that by heretical he means ideas that go against prevailing dogmas, and that in his self-appointed role as heretic, he is unimpressed by conventional wisdom.

    Just Asking: The Science Guy Bill Nye gets hot
    The popular host talks climate change and offers the grade he would give America on science.
    Joe Heim
     Writer and editor February 19 
    Bill Nye, 59, is a science educator, writer and television personality who was the host of the popular children’s science show “Bill Nye, the Science Guy.” He was born in Washington and graduated from Sidwell Friends.
    If your last name hadn’t been Nye, you wouldn’t be known as the Science Guy?
    Joe Heim joined The Post in 1999. He is currently a staff writer for the Metro section's Local Enterprise team. He also writes Just Asking, a weekly Q&A column in the Sunday magazine and is the paper's resident Downton Abbey expert. View Archive
    Yes, it has occurred to me, but I played the hand I was dealt. In Denmark, where my ancestors are from, it’s pronounced “knee.” If you go to any Scandinavian country, our name is on everything. It means new. New and improved.
    Bill New, the science guy?
    Yeah, I know.
    I think Nye worked out well. Rhyming is everything.
    Well, it’s not everything, but it sure helped me.
    When you were growing up in D.C., what were things that got you interested in science?
    I always say the bees. I watched bees on azalea bushes. This was a big thing for me. I remember being just fascinated. How can these large animals fly around with such tiny wings? It really was amazing.
    What’s the first experiment you remember doing?
    The one that really sticks with me is that I got stung by a bee. My mom put ammonia on it, and it felt better. My brother had a chemistry set, and he made ammonia in the palm of my hand with two powders. And I remember thinking, That is the coolest thing. The bee sting was a drag, but I thought that was just fantastic.
    What grade does America deserve in science?
    Well, this is the world’s most technically advanced society, and we have people denying climate change. These guys are still in deep denial, and future generations, what few of them will be alive, are just going to go, “What were you freaking people doing? What was wrong with you?” So, in a sense, an F. But if it makes you feel any better, you can say a B-minus. We have this top tier [of scientists] in the U.S., the people who graduated from Stanford, from Berkeley, from MIT, Cornell. Those people are still exceptional and really good. But we have this enormous gap between that and just regular software writers
    and farmers and people that need to be scientifically literate.
    Is Congress friend or enemy to scientists?
    Some of each. Whenever you have the head of the Senate science committee writing a book about the conspiracy of climate denial, you have a problem. I’m saying that in a way to be ironic and hilariously funny, but[Senator James] Inhofe is leaving the world worse than he found it. He doesn’t mean to, I understand that, but, nevertheless, he is.

    The Antikythera Mechanism, Has Technology Changed Us?



    How did a strange lump of bronze and decayed wood discovered in a shipwreck reveal the first ever computer? Learn more about the complex clockwork device, created in the time of Archimedes, that could predict the positions of the sun, moon and planets, and even when the Olympic games fell.
    More about how technology has changed us: http://www.bbc.co.uk/…/3vVjcY47k2p5Wsnj3…/a-history-of-ideas


    A History of Ideas

    Explore some big questions about how we live today.

    2015年2月21日 星期六

    蘋果、釋迦、梨、木瓜、香蕉成熟過程。釋放乙烯

    【這些水果不要和蔬菜放一起!】
    蘋果、釋迦、梨、木瓜、香蕉。
    這類水果在成熟過程中會釋放一種氣體,叫做「乙烯」。
    乙烯會加速水果的成熟和老化,若將一般蔬菜、水果與此類水果放在一起,就容易提早老化、腐爛。
    ◤年節冰箱滿滿!別放錯~來看正確的各式水果保存法~
    香蕉只能放室溫?蘋果、水蜜桃一起塞冰箱?...
    COMMONHEALTH.COM.TW

    2015年2月20日 星期五

    2015年2月19日 星期四

    Spyware Embedded by U.S. in Foreign Networks, Security Firm Says


    Spyware Embedded by U.S. in Foreign Networks, Security Firm Says
    By NICOLE PERLROTH and DAVID E. SANGER February 17, 2015


    美國被指在敵國電腦永久性植入監控軟件
    NICOLE PERLROTH, DAVID E. SANGER 2015年02月17日


    SAN FRANCISCO — The United States has found a way to permanently embed surveillance and sabotage tools in computers and networks it has targeted in Iran, Russia, Pakistan, China, Afghanistan and other countries closely watched by American intelligence agencies, according to a Russian cybersecurity firm.


    舊金山——俄羅斯網絡安全公司表示,美國已經找到了一種方法,可以把監視和破壞工具永久性地嵌入在伊朗、俄羅斯、巴基斯坦、中國、阿富汗和其他美國情報機構密切關注的國家的目標計算機和網絡中。


    In a presentation of its findings at a conference in Mexico on Monday, Kaspersky Lab, the Russian firm, said that the implants had been placed by what it called the “Equation Group,” which appears to be a veiled reference to the National Security Agency and its military counterpart, United States Cyber Command.


    周一,俄羅斯公司卡巴斯基實驗室(Kaspersky Lab)在墨西哥的一次會議上介紹其調查結果稱,這些工具由它所謂的「方程組」(Equation Group)植入,這裡似乎是暗指國家安全局(National Security Agency)及其對應的軍事機構網絡戰司令部(United States Cyber Command)。


    It linked the techniques to those used in Stuxnet, the computer worm that disabled about 1,000 centrifuges in Iran’s nuclear enrichment program. It was later revealed that Stuxnet was part of a program code-named Olympic Games and run jointly by Israel and the United States.


    它認為,這些技術與破壞伊朗核濃縮項目大約1000台離心機的計算機蠕蟲病毒Stuxnet中所使用的技術有關。後來發現,Stuxnet病毒是一個代號「奧運會」(Olympic Games)的項目的一部分,由以色列和美國共同進行。


    Sergei Karpukhin/Reuters

    卡巴斯基實驗室的莫斯科總部。該公司稱,美國在外國網絡中永久性地植入了監控工具。


    Kaspersky’s report said that Olympic Games had similarities to a much broader effort to infect computers well beyond those in Iran. It detected particularly high infection rates in computers in Iran, Pakistan and Russia, three countries whose nuclear programs the United States routinely monitors.


    卡巴斯基的報告稱,「奧運會」與感染伊朗以外計算機的更大規模行動具有相似之處。它在伊朗、巴基斯坦和俄羅斯的計算機中檢測到了特別高的感染率,這三個國家的核項目向來在美國監控之下。


    Some of the implants burrow so deep into the computer systems, Kaspersky said, that they infect the “firmware,” the embedded software that preps the computer’s hardware before the operating system starts. It is beyond the reach of existing antivirus products and most security controls, Kaspersky reported, making it virtually impossible to wipe out.


    卡巴斯基表示,有些植入程序在電腦系統中隱藏得非常之深,甚至感染了「固件」,這種嵌入式軟件負責在操作系統啟動前準備好電腦的硬件。卡巴斯基報道稱,它已經超出了現有殺毒產品和大多數安全控制手段的能力範疇,所以幾乎不可能清除。


    In many cases, it also allows the American intelligence agencies to grab the encryption keys off a machine, unnoticed, and unlock scrambled contents. Moreover, many of the tools are designed to run on computers that are disconnected from the Internet, which was the case in the computers controlling Iran’s nuclear enrichment plants.


    在很多情況下,它還能讓美國情報機構無聲無息地從一台機器上獲取密鑰,然後解密加密內容。此外,許多工具都是為了在不與互聯網連接的電腦上運行而設計的,控制伊朗核濃縮工廠的計算機就是這種情況。


    Kaspersky noted that of the more than 60 attack groups it was tracking in cyberspace, the so-called Equation Group “surpasses anything known in terms of complexity and sophistication of techniques, and that has been active for almost two decades.”


    卡巴斯基指出,在它在網絡空間跟蹤的60多個攻擊群體中,所謂的方程組「在複雜性和成熟度方面超過了所有已知技術,而且它已經啟用了將近20年」。


    Kaspersky Lab was founded by Eugene Kaspersky, who studied cryptography at a high school co-sponsored by the K.G.B. and once worked for the Russian military. Its studies, including one describing a cyberattack of more than 100 banks and other financial institutions in 30 countries, are considered credible by Western experts.


    卡巴斯基實驗室由尤金·卡巴斯基(Eugene Kaspersky)創立,他曾在由克格勃(KGB)聯合主辦的一所學校學習密碼學,還曾為俄羅斯軍方工作。西方專家認為,實驗室的研究具有可信性。在其中一項研究中,實驗室發現30個國家的100多家銀行和其他金融機構受到了網絡襲擊。


    The fact that security software made by Kaspersky Lab is not used by many American government agencies has made it more trusted by other governments, like those of Iran and Russia, whose systems are closely watched by United States intelligence agencies. That gives Kaspersky a front-row seat to America's digital espionage operations.


    許多美國政府機構都是不使用卡巴斯基實驗室製作的安全軟件的,因此,它也更受伊朗和俄羅斯等其他國家的政府信賴。這些國家的系統都在被美國情報機構密切監視。所以,卡巴斯基也得以在第一線監視美國的數字間諜活動。


    The firm’s researchers say that what makes these attacks particularly remarkable is their way of attacking the actual firmware of the computers. Only in rare cases are cybercriminals able to get into the actual guts of a machine.


    公司的研究人員稱,這些襲擊之所以尤其引人注意,是因為它們會襲擊計算機實際固件的方式。網絡犯罪分子很少能進入一台機器的實體內部。


    Recovering from a cyberattack typically involves wiping the computer’s operating system and reinstalling software, or replacing a computer’s hard drive. But if the firmware gets infected, security experts say, it can turn even the most sophisticated computer into a useless piece of metal.


    恢復受到網絡攻擊的電腦通常需要清理計算機的操作系統和重新安裝軟件,或者更換計算機的硬盤驅動器。但安全專家說,倘若固件受到感染,最精密的計算機可能也會變成一堆廢鐵。


    In the past, security experts have warned about “the race to the bare metal” of a machine. As security around software has increased, criminals have looked for ways to infect the actual hardware of the machine. Firmware is about the closest to the bare metal you can get — a coveted position that allows the attacker not only to hide from antivirus products but also to reinfect a machine even if its hard drive is wiped.


    安全專家過去就警告過要注意感染電腦「裸機的競賽」。隨着軟件安全的升級,犯罪分子已開始尋找感染電腦實際硬件的途徑。能攻擊到固件,幾乎可以說已經無限接近對裸機的攻擊——這是一種夢寐以求的態勢,不僅能讓攻擊者避開反病毒產品,還能在硬盤數據被抹掉後再次感染電腦。


    “If the malware gets into the firmware, it is able to resurrect itself forever,” Costin Raiu, a Kaspersky threat researcher, said in the report. “It means that we are practically blind and cannot detect hard drives that have been infected with this malware.”


    「如果惡意軟件進入固件,它永遠都能自行復活,」卡巴斯基的威脅研究人員科斯廷·拉尤(Costin Raiu)在報告中說。「這意味着我們實際上就瞎了,無法檢測到感染了這種惡意軟件的硬盤。」


    The possibility of such an attack is one that math researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a branch of the Commerce Department, have long cautioned about but have very rarely seen. In an interview last year, Andrew Regenscheid, a math researcher at the institute, warned that such attacks were extremely powerful. If the firmware gets corrupted, Mr. Regenscheid said, “your computer won’t boot up and you can’t use it. You have to replace the computer to recover from that attack.”


    隸屬於商務部(Commerce Department)的國家標準與技術研究院(National Institute of Standards and Technology)的數學研究人員多年來一直在發出警告,稱存在遭遇這種攻擊的可能性,但很少能實際見到它的發生。去年接受採訪時,該研究院的數學研究人員安德魯·雷根沙伊德(Andrew Regenscheid)警告稱,這類攻擊極其有力。雷根沙伊德表示,如果固件被感染了,「電腦就無法啟動和使用。不得不換電腦才能從攻擊中恢復過來。」


    That kind of attack also makes for a powerful encryption-cracking tool, Mr. Raiu noted, because it gives attackers the ability to capture a machine’s encryption password, store it in “an invisible area inside the computer’s hard drive” and unscramble a machine’s contents.


    拉尤指出,這種攻擊也會成為一種強大的加密破解手段,因為它讓攻擊者能夠獲取電腦的加密秘鑰,將其存儲在「電腦硬盤裡一個看不見的區域」並譯出電腦里的內容。


    Kaspersky’s report also detailed the group’s efforts to map out so-called air-gapped systems that are not connected to the Internet, including Iran’s nuclear enrichment facilities, and infect them using a USB stick. To get those devices onto the machines, the report said, the attackers have in some cases intercepted them in transit.


    卡巴斯基的報告還詳細介紹了方程組為了繪製伊朗核濃縮設施等不與互聯網連接的所謂物理隔離系統的結構圖,並用U盤感染它們而展開的活動。報告稱,為了讓這些裝置進入電腦,攻擊者在部分情況下會在傳輸過程中對其進行攔截。


    Documents revealed by the former National Security Agency contractor Edward J. Snowden detailed the agency’s plans to leap the “air gaps” that separate computers from the outside world, including efforts to install specialized hardware on computers being shipped to a target country. That hardware can then receive low-frequency radio waves broadcast from a suitcase-size device that the N.S.A. has deployed around the world. At other times the air gaps have been leapt by having a spy physically install use a USB stick to infect the adversary's computer.


    前國家安全局承包商僱員愛德華·J·斯諾登(Edward J. Snowden)泄密的文件,詳細記述了國家安全局為跨越將電腦同外部世界隔離開的「物理距離」而展開計劃,包括在運往目標國家的電腦上安裝專業硬件等活動。這種硬件能接收NSA部署在世界各地的一種手提箱大小的設備發出的低頻無線電波。有的時候則直接跨過隔離帶,通過讓間諜使用U盤的方式,直接安裝到敵方的電腦里。


    Basing its estimate on the time stamps in code, the Kaspersky presentation said, the Equation Group had been infecting computers since 2001, but aggressively began ramping up their capabilities in 2008, the year that President Obama was elected, and began doubling down on digital tools to spy on adversaries of America.


    基於對編碼中的時間標識的估計,卡巴斯基的介紹稱方程組從2001年開始就一直在感染電腦,但在奧巴馬總統當選的2008年,該機構的實力開始大幅提升,並在暗中監視美國的敵人的數字手段上加大投入。


    While the United States has never acknowledged conducting any offensive cyberoperations, President Obama discussed the issue in general in an interview on Friday with Re/code, an online computer industry publication, describing offensive cyberweapons as being unlike traditional weapons.


    儘管美國從未承認進行過任何進攻性的網絡行動,但周五接受在線計算機行業出版物Re/code的採訪時,奧巴馬總統泛泛地討論了這個問題,稱攻擊性網絡武器不同於傳統武器。


    “This is more like basketball than football, in the sense that there’s no clear line between offense and defense,” said Mr. Obama, himself a basketball player. “Things are going back and forth all the time.”


    「從進攻和防守之間沒有明確的界線這一點來說,這更像籃球而非足球,」本身就喜歡打籃球的奧巴馬說。「它是不停地在你來我往的。」







    Copyright © 2013 The New York Times Company. All rights reserved.




    翻譯:陳柳、陳亦亭