2016年5月29日 星期日

EU ministers set 2020 target for free access to scientific papers


Results of research supported by public and public-private funds set to be…
THEGUARDIAN.COM|由 NADIA KHOMAMI 上傳

2016年5月28日 星期六

Why Ancient Brits threw out their most valuable possessions

Why did ancient Brits throw out their valuable possessions? This is a question that researchers across Britain and northern Europe are asking about the Bronze Age hoards that have been left in the ground across Britain. Many have lain undiscovered for 4,000 years. Our curators are interviewed in this BBC Britain articlehttp://ow.ly/VHkn300z9UG

Hundreds of objects that seem far too important to dump have been found in…
BBC.COM|由 AMANDA RUGGERI 上傳

2016年5月23日 星期一

Eliminating the HIV epidemic is possible, says UCLA. Experimental HIV Vaccine Gives Some Protection

A nearly 20-year analysis by researchers yields the first proof that the "treatment as prevention" approach could eliminate the HIV epidemic.
A new study shows that effective treatment of patients in Denmark has virtually contained the disease.
UNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIA.EDU


*****

2009.9 An experimental vaccine regimen has shown a modest ability to protect people exposed to HIV, the first time an investigational HIV vaccine has been shown to have this effect.

The results from the trial, which involved more than 16,000 adults in Thailand, indicated that the vaccine regimen lowered the rate of contracting HIV by 31% compared with those taking a placebo, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, which helped fund the study.

'Additional research is needed to better understand how this vaccine regimen reduced the risk of HIV infection, but certainly this is an encouraging advance for the HIV vaccine field,' said Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which is part of the NIH.

It is a rare piece of good news for the field of AIDS vaccine research, which has sponsored more than 100 vaccine trials since 1987 but without any significant success.

The regimen consists of two vaccines. One is a primer dose made by Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccine division of French drug maker Sanofi-Aventis; the other is a booster dose developed by Vaxgen Inc. and now licensed to Global Solutions for Infectious Diseases, in South San Francisco, Calif.

種試驗性免疫疫苗療法顯示出可適當保護愛滋病病毒(HIV)易感人群,這是尚在研究階段的HIV疫苗首次顯示出有此效果。

讚助這項研究的美國國立衛生研究院(U.S. National Institutes of Health)的資料顯示,針對泰國逾1.6萬名成人的試驗結果顯示,與服用安慰劑的對照組相比,採用這種免疫疫苗療法的HIV感染率下降了31%。

周四,研究人員宣布他們首次研制出了一種對人類有效的艾滋病疫苗。注射該疫苗後感染幾率會下降約30%。
國 立衛生研究院下屬的國家過敏症與傳染病研究所(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)所長法奇(Anthony Fauci)說,還需要進一步研究,以便更好地了解這種免疫法降低HIV感染風險的機制,但這肯定是HIV疫苗領域的一個鼓舞人心的進展。

這是愛滋病疫苗領域極為罕見的好消息,該領域自1987年以來已讚助了100多項疫苗試驗,但沒有任何重大成就。

這 一免疫法由兩種疫苗組成。其一是法國藥品制造商賽諾菲安萬特(Sanofi-Aventis)旗下生產疫苗的子公司Sanofi Pasteur生產的基礎疫苗;另一種是Vaxgen Inc.開發的加強劑,現已授權給位於加州舊金山市的非贏利組織傳染性疾病全球解決方案(Global Solutions for Infectious Diseases)。

Gautam Naik

Scientific Method vs. How we Actually do Science

Scientific Method vs. How we Actually do Science

2016年5月21日 星期六

Mary Anning

Natural History Museum, London 新增了 3 張相片 — 在Natural History Museum, London


Fossil hunter Mary Anning was born ‪#‎OnThisDay‬ in 1799.
This palaeontological pioneer spent much of her life searching for the remains of fossilised marine reptiles along the Dorset coast. Her finds and observations played an important part in many scientific discoveries, including the first ichthyosaur skeleton correctly identified and the identification of coprolites.
Still, Anning struggled to find acceptance in the scientific community of 19th-century Britain, which was mostly made up of Anglican gentleman, and consequently struggled financially for much of her relatively short life.
Today, several of Anning's discoveries are represented in the Museum's Marine Fossil Reptiles gallery, and Museum learning activities aim to highlight her story.
http://bit.ly/NHM-Marine-Fossil-Reptile



Mary Anning. Jane Austen 的小說描述過的地方:英國Lyme Regis 地方及小說家 John Fowles的地方簡史和其二百多年 Belmont House


Mary Anning was born ‪#‎onthisday‬ in 1799, one of the most famous fossil finders of her day. Her family had earned a living for years by gathering fossils on the shore at Lyme Regis in Dorset to sell to collectors, leading to the well-known rhyme: ‘She sells sea shells by the sea shore’. Mary learned about the fossils from her parents. Despite the lack of a formal education, she became an expert on the fossils she found, and the most eminent geologists of the day often sought her advice. In the 1820s she became the first person in Britain to find complete specimens of an ichthyosaur, a plesiosaur and a pterodactyl.
The specimens that Anning collected can still be found in museums throughout Britain. This large skull is part of the skull and lower jaw of an ichthyosaur (Ichthyosaurus platyodon). The British Museum purchased this shortly after Anning discovered it. The Museum’s natural history collections moved to South Kensington in the 1880s and this is now on loan from the Natural History Museum, London, on display in our Enlightenment Gallery.


British Museum 的相片。

2016年5月20日 星期五

Dung Beetles Navigate Poop-Pile Getaways Using Celestial 'Snapshots'


Oliver Sacks Foundation
Dung beetles, navigating by the stars.


Dung Beetles Navigate Poop-Pile Getaways Using Celestial 'Snapshots'
The tiny waste harvesters use the Milky Way as a guide to roll their dung…
NPR.ORG



It's not easy being a dung beetle.
Besides the obvious fact that they eat, well, dung, the act of just getting a meal is an involved process.
In the most elaborate carry-out scenario, the dung beetles must first stake claim to their piece of poop at the main dung pile, then shape it into a sphere for easy transport, fend off other dung beetles trying to steal it, and then — using the stars to navigate — determine the fastest way to roll their prize away to a safe spot for consumption.
But now, researchers from Lund University in Sweden say one part of this process might not be as taxing for the dung beetles as previously thought: The celestial navigation.
In a study published in the scientific journal Current Biology, researchers say dung beetles take "snapshots" of the stars and store the images in their brains.
Instead of using the stars — specifically the Milky Way — as a map that the beetles intermittently reference for directions, the researchers say dung beetles take one snapshot of the constellation, which is sufficient for navigation.
One of the researchers, Basil el Jundi, explains in a press release that the snapshot method for orientation allows the beetles to be more efficient because they don't have to rely on long processes to retrieve information.
"We are the first to have shown that dung beetles are taking these snapshots. We are also the first to show how they store and use the images inside their tiny brains," el Jundi says in the statement.
Researchers say the beetles make the snapshot while "dancing" atop their ball of dung. As the Two-Way previously reported, this poop-pile jig helps the beetles determine which path away from the dung is the best route...

2016年5月19日 星期四

《簡氏防務周刊》 :中國水下長城系統或削弱美俄潛艇優勢


新聞 / 軍事

簡氏:中國水下長城系統或削弱美俄潛艇優勢

莫雨

2016.05.19 06:10
華盛頓—

英國《簡氏防務周刊》5月17日刊登文章說,中​​國船舶工業集團公司提議建設的船舶和水下傳感器網絡或將極大削弱美國和俄羅斯潛艇的水下作戰優勢,同時大大增強未來中國控制南中國海的能力。

這篇由美國的中國軍事專家理查德·費舍爾撰寫的文章說,這個傳感器網絡體係也被稱為“水下長城計劃”,相關信息已經公開有一段時間,但是中國船舶工業集團公司實際上計劃建設的是改良版的中國水下聲波監聽系統(sound surveillance system)。在冷戰時期,美國曾研製水下聲波監聽系統,在對抗蘇聯潛艇方面具有顯著優勢。

費舍爾說,中國船舶工業集團公司計劃的這個系統可能會裝備中國人民解放軍海軍,也可能出口。

費舍爾說,簡氏防務獲得的中國船舶工業集團在去年12月一個展會上公佈的有關係統的介紹資料說,系統的目的是為了給客戶提供一攬子的解決方案,包括水下環境監測和採集,實時定位,追踪水上和水下目標,海底地震、海嘯及其他災難的預警,以及海洋科考。

這個系統的具體構成包括水面艦艇、聲納系統、水下安全設備、海洋油氣勘探設備、水下無人設備和海洋儀器電子設備。

美國國家利益網站在一天前發表了美國海軍戰爭學院中國海洋研究所教授萊爾·戈德斯坦(Lyle Goldstein)一篇題為《中國“水下長城”》的文章,分析《中國海洋報》去年12月的一篇有關構築海洋水下觀測體系建議的文章。戈德斯坦援引中國的文章說,中​​國的“水下長城”要覆蓋中國管轄海域,“而且要涉及關係國家利益的全球海洋,特別要對近海、深遠海、邊遠海島、戰略通道等關鍵區域” 。

戈德斯坦說,中國的海洋水下觀測系統是對美國海底優勢的一個挑戰,這應當被看作一個警示,也就是,北京不會屈從於美國的海底主導地位。

2016年5月18日 星期三

With a Patient's Virtual Heart, Doctors Predict Cardiac Arrest

A customized computer model showing a heart's unique pattern of electrical activity can guide medical intervention

A customized computer model showing a heart's unique pattern of…
SPECTRUM.IEEE.ORG

2016年5月14日 星期六

Google開源全球最精準AI自然語言理解技術;SyntaxNet ;Google to developers: Here's how to stop making dumb chatbots


Google認為「自然語言理解」是AI的終極任務,而現在他們開源了準確度最高的自然語言解析技術SyntaxNet,在該平台上訓練的模型,語言理解準確率超過90%!到底SyntaxNet是怎麼運作的呢?
Google Research今天宣佈,世界準確度最高的自然語言解
BNEXT.COM.TW




Generally, computers are useless at holding a conversation. They just take things a bit too literally. But Google is teaching computers how to make sense of the vagaries of human speech and text.
Starting today, Google is opening up those algorithms to outside software developers. The tools released will help programmers build language-based apps and services that are less prone to annoying misunderstandings than many of today’s chatbots. And they should help get developers hooked on the powerful machine-learning techniques Google is honing...


MIT Technology Review
We gave a Google language parser our own articles to read to test how well it works, and weren't disappointed.


The search company is releasing the secret sauce it uses to make sense of…
TECHNOLOGYREVIEW.COM

2016年5月11日 星期三

2016年5月10日 星期二

How a deep neural network learned to copy and paste artistic style

A neural network has taken its first tentative steps toward recognizing and reproducing artistic style.
A deep neural network has learned to transfer artistic styles to other images.
TECHNOLOGYREVIEW.COM

2016年5月8日 星期日

Is There a Fountain of Youth in Our DNA?

Weekend Reads: Nonie Hickle is 91. She ought to have cardiovascular disease, cancer, or at least gray hair. Yet she doesn’t have any of those things. Why not? The answer remains elusive despite one of the largest genetic studies to date of exceptionally healthy old people.
____________________________________________
Many biotechnologists still think we might push death even further away, as these stories from the MIT Technology Review archives illustrate.
Study of exceptionally healthy old people fails to trace their well-being to specific genes.
TECHNOLOGYREVIEW.COM