From the archive: Louis Pasteur, the microbiologist who confirmed that microbes cause disease, died 120 years ago today. Using ailing silkworms, he made two vital observations
加拿大某教會1997年12月刊物文章An article for the December 1997 Deep Cove Crier
DR. LOUIS PASTEUR: SERVANT OF ALL
My family and I just watched an excellent movie on the life of Louis Pasteur [the movie is available from our Parkgate Library.] This Academy Award-winning movie showed me that every one of us in Deep Cove/Seymour owes an enormous debt to Dr. Pasteur. Just think of pasteurized milk and honey, making food safe for our families to eat and drink, thanks to Louis Pasteur ; think of our children whose lives are safe from rabies transmitted by ‘mad dogs’, thanks to Louis Pasteur; think of our wives and mothers who need not fear death from infection during childbirth, thanks to Louis Pasteur; think of the sheep, cattle and chickens that we can safely rely on for our food supply, thanks to Louis Pasteur. No wonder that Pasteur’s name is better known than any other scientist who has ever lived.Louis Pasteur is a living reminder that anyone who wants to make a difference in life is bound to face bigotry and opposition. The most narrow-minded usually turn out to be those who pretend to be the most open-minded and inclusive. Pasteur was maligned as a murderer and a menace to science. He was even challenged to a duel by an angry physician. His ‘criminal’ behaviour was none other than publishing a pamphlet urging doctors to wash their hands before surgery and to sterilize their instruments. Thirty percent of pregnant women in Paris were needlessly dying from infection during childbirth. One grief-struck husband, whose wife had just died from childbirth fever, went on a rampage and shot his doctor dead. Medical doctors rallied against Dr. Pasteur, blaming his pamphlet for the murder and claiming that Pasteur was making the practice of medicine unsafe for physicians and surgeons. "Who did Pasteur think that he was?" They said. "He isn’t even a medical doctor...just a lowly chemist".
The Emperor’s wife invited Pasteur to the French Court to explain his radical ideas. Pasteur had the nerve to tell the Emperor that the hospitals of Paris were death houses, and that there was hardly a doctor who didn’t carry death on his hands. After accurately predicting the death of the Emperor’s sister-in-law from childbirth infection, Pasteur was condemned as a fraud and banned by the Emperor from ever speaking out publicly again about medicine.
Having been banished into obscurity in the countryside of Arbois, Pasteur spent the next decade researching the causes of anthrax, the black plague ravaging the sheep across France. Miraculously Pasteur invented an Anthrax Vaccine, which he gave freely to all farmers’ sheep in Arbois. When the French government needed more sheep to pay the 5 million francs War indemnity to Germany, they came to Arbois to find out why Pasteur’s sheep were healthy. Telling them of his vaccine, Pasteur was again mocked as a fool and charlatan by the Academy of Medicine. Only after a rigorous test where infected Anthrax Blood was injected in 50 sheep, was Pasteur finally vindicated. To everyone’s amazement, the only sheep that survived were the 25 sheep which Pasteur had injected with his vaccine.
Was Pasteur then accepted by the medical establishment? Not on your life! When Pasteur had the nerve to look for a rabies cure, again he was vilified and humiliated without mercy. Pasteur was such a servant of all humanity that he even risked facing prison or guillotine to save the life of a rabies-infected ten-year old boy, Joseph Meister. Joseph Meister was later made the caretaker of Pasteur’s tomb at the world-famous Pasteur Institute in Paris. When the Nazis tried to force him to open Pasteur’s tomb in 1940, Joseph tragically committed suicide rather than defile the grave of his hero.
The ‘great physician’ Jesus once said that if anyone wants to be first, he must become the very last, and the servant of all. Louis Pasteur was indeed the servant of all, who sacrificed his time, energy, and health so that others might live. Pasteur selflessly taught that the benefits of science are not for the scientist, but for all of humanity. Though he has saved millions of lives through his discoveries, Pasteur was unable to save the three out of his four daughters who died from typhoid fever. In his unceasing striving to cure rabies, he suffered a crippling stroke at age 46. Yet even that setback did not stop him from successfully finding a rabies cure.
Near the end of his life, Pasteur was finally honoured by the French Academy of Medicine. He graciously said to them: ‘Doctors and scientists of the future, do not let yourselves be tainted by a barren skepticism nor discouraged by sadness of certain hours that creep over every nation. Do not become angry at your opponents for no scientific theory has ever been accepted without opposition.’ In so many ways, Pasteur embodied the true meaning of Christ-likeness. My prayer for the Deep Cove/Seymour community this December is that we may never let opposition embitter us as we seek to be the servants of all.
The Reverend Ed Hird
Rector, St. Simon’s Anglican Church
To Crier Index
Herman Melville, who died September 28th 1891, joked that narwhals' tusks are used to open letters. He was quite wrong: they are actually used to attract mates. (Narwhals with big tusks are well endowed at the other end too.) From the archive:
赫爾曼 · 梅爾維爾，1891 年 9 月 28 日去世，享年開玩笑說，獨角鯨的長牙用來打開信件。他完全錯了: 他們實際上用來吸引伴侶。(獨角鯨的大獠牙好天生的另一端也。)從存檔:
EVER since Europeans began trading the whorled ivory tusk of the narwhal in the 12th century, people have puzzled over its purpose. Early research was hampered...
“There is liquid water today on the surface of Mars."
See a full gallery of Nasa's extraordinary images.
First, he invented the lithium-ion battery, which powers electronics you use everyday.
Now, professor John Goodenough and a team of Cockrell School of Engineering researchers are making significant advancements in the race to develop a commercially viable sodium-ion battery.
Learn how their discoveries could soon lead to a better battery that stores wind and solar energy and powers electric vehicles:http://utex.as/1MslUU4
Yale University scientists may have cracked a part of the chemical code for one of the most basic, yet mysterious, processes in the natural world — nature’s ability to transform nitrogen from the air into usable nitrogen compounds.
This has the potential to be big:
Researchers at Johns Hopkins say they have discovered how a common gene mutation causes the brain damage associated with dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis—better known as ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease—and are experimenting with a molecular therapy to address the problem. Read more:http://hub.jhu.edu/2015/09/23/als-dementia-research
這研究的潛力可能很大: 約翰· 霍普金斯大學的研究人員說，他們發現共同的基因突變如何導致腦損傷，這與老年癡呆症和肌萎縮側索硬化相關聯— — 更好地稱之為ALS 或盧伽雷病— — 以及正在試驗一種分子的治療來解決問題。閱讀更多:
CMU researchers in Stefan Bernhart’s laboratory use a unique approach to creating solar fuel by mimicking the photosynthesis process in plants. Read about how CMU & Mother Nature are teaming up to save the world.
Solar power has found its place in the sun as the fastest-growing source of new electricity in the United States, and now chemists are searching for catalysts to propel the energy resource beyond the common solar panel